Acetylcholine: A chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.

Anal Sphincters: The internal anal sphincter is a muscular ring that surrounds the anal canal; it can’t be controlled voluntarily. The external anal sphincter, is a muscular ring that surrounds the outside wall of the anal canal and anus and can be controlled voluntarily.

Anticholinergic Medication: A substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system.

Antimuscarinics: A type of anticholinergic agent which blocking action is specific to the muscarinic receptors.

Bladder: A hollow muscular organ that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.

Bowel: The intestine.

BOTOX: A drug prepared from botulin toxin A, used medically to treat certain muscular conditions. BOTOX is the trademark name of this agent.

Bulking Agent: An implant injected around the urethral sphincter to help it completely close. Bulking agents treat urinary incontinence due to Intrinsic Sphincter Deficiency.

Clinical effectiveness: The application of the best knowledge, derived from research, clinical experience and patient preferences to achieve optimum processes and outcomes of care for patients.

Constipation: A condition of the bowel where evacuation is infrequent or difficult.

Continence: The ability to exercise voluntary control over natural functions.

Crone’s disease: A type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.

Day-Procedure: Also called outpatient surgery or same-day surgery, are surgical procedures not requiring an overnight hospital stay.

Dementia: a collection of symptoms that are caused by disorders affecting the brain. Dementia affects thinking, behaviour and the ability to perform everyday tasks.

Faecal Incontinence: Any accidental or involuntary loss of faeces.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A chronic, long-term gastrointestinal disorder that manifests as several bowel symptoms over time.

Kegel exercises: Repeatedly contracting and relaxing the muscles that form part of the pelvic floor, with the purpose of strengthening them.

Laxatives: Substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements.

Muscarinic Receptors: Receptors in cell membranes of certain neurons stimulated by a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine.

Percutaneous: Made, done, or effected through the skin.

Percutaneous Tibial Nerve Stimulation (PTNS): An office-based form of neuromodulation to treat OAB that delivers electrical stimulation from the tibial nerve to the sacral plexus.

Mixed Incontinence: The condition of having both stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence.

Neuromodulation: The delivery of electrical impulses to a targeted group of nerves.

Nocturia: The urge to urinate several times throughout the night due to an overactive bladder.

Non-Invasive: Not involving the introduction of instruments into the body.

Overactive Bladder: A chronic condition of the bladder that causes a sudden and intense urge to urinate.

Pelvic Floor: A group of muscles located in the pelvis that stretch like a hammock from the pubic bone to the coccyx, and from side to side. The pelvic floor keeps the pelvic organs in place.

Prostate: The gland which surrounds the urethra of males at the base of the bladder,

Prostatectomy: the surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland. This operation is done for benign conditions that cause urinary retention, as well as for prostate cancer and for other cancers of the pelvis.

Quality of Life (QoL): A measurement in healthcare of how a certain ailment affects a patient on an individual level.

Radiation Therapy: A cancer treatment using X-rays to damage cancer cells, so they cannot multiply. Radiation therapy is also known as radiotherapy.

Radical Prostatectomy: A radical Prostatectomy is a urological operation used to treat prostate cancer. This involves the complete removal of the prostate gland, part of the urethra, and the seminal vesicles. For aggressive cancers, the adjacent lymph glands may also be removed.

Sacral Plexus: A network of nerves which provides motor and sensory nerves for the posterior thigh, most of the lower leg and foot, and part of the pelvis. It is located in the lumbar vertebrae and sacral vertebrae.

Surgical trauma: Damage resulting from a surgical procedure.

Urge Incontinence: The involuntary loss of urine due to a sudden and intense urge to urinate.

Urinary Incontinence: Any accidental or involuntary loss of urine from the bladder.

Urethral sphincters: The urethral sphincters are two muscles used to control the exit of urine in the urinary bladder through the urethra.